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2023-05-23 18:00:21
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Nokia executives attempted to explain its fall from the top of the smartphone pyramid with three factors: 1) that Nokia was technically inferior to Apple, 2) that the company was complacent and 3) that its leaders didn't see the disruptive iPhone coming. It has also been argued that it was none of the above. Nokia lost the smartphone battle because of divergent shared fears among the company's middle and top managers which led to company-wide inertia that left it powerless to respond to Apple's game. Based on the findings of an in-depth investigation and 76 interviews with top and middle managers, engineers, and external experts, the researchers discovered a culture of fear due to temperamental leaders and that frightened middle managers were scared of telling the truth. The fear that froze the company came from two places. First, the company's top managers had a terrifying reputation. Some members of Nokia's board and top management were described as “extremely temperamental” and they regularly shouted at people “at the top of their lungs”. It was very difficult to tell them things they didn't want to hear. Secondly, top managers were afraid of the external environment and not meeting their quarterly targets, which also impacted how they treated middle managers. Top managers thus made middle managers afraid of disappointing them. Middle managers were told that they were not ambitious enough to meet top managers’ goals. Fearing the reactions of top managers, middle managers remained silent or provided optimistic, filtered information. Thus, middle managers directly lied to top management. Worse, a culture of status inside Nokia made everyone want to hold onto vested power for fear of resources being allocated elsewhere if they delivered bad news or showed that they were not bold or ambitious enough to undertake challenging assignments. Beyond verbal pressure, top managers also applied pressure for faster performance in personnel selection. This led middle managers to over promise and under deliver. One middle manager told us that “you can get resources by promising something earlier or promising a lot. It's sales work.” While modest fear might be healthy for motivation, abusing it can be like overusing a drug, which risks generating harmful side effects. To reduce this risk, leaders should coordinate with the varied emotions of the staff. Nokia's top managers should have encouraged safe dialogue, internal coordination, and feedback to understand the true emotion in the organization.1. Nokia lost the smartphone battle because its technology is not as good as that of Apple. (1) 2. Nokia's middle managers were frank to tell the truth, but the top ones didn't listen to them. (2) 3. Nokia's top managers were too moody to hear anything unpleasant. (3) 4. Middle managers in Nokia delivered results more than they promised earlier. (4) 5. Nokia's top managers should have had better conversation techniques to encourage internal coordination and truth. (5)
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It's important for a CEO to be passionate and enthusiastic, but there's a line of professionalism that must always be maintained. According to a report from the technology website Venture Beat, PayPal CEO David Marcus wrote a critical letter to his employees blaming them for not using PayPal products and encouraging them to leave if they didn't have the passion to use the products they work for. According to the website, part of the leaked letter reads: “It's been brought to my attention that when testing paying with mobile at Cafe 17 last week, some of you refused to install the PayPal app, and others didn't even remember their PayPal passwords. That's unacceptable to me, and the rest of my team, everyone at PayPal should use our products where available. That's the only way we can make them better, and better.” “In closing, if you are one of the folks who refused to install the PayPal app or if you can't remember your PayPal password, do yourself a favor, go and find something that will connect with your heart and mind elsewhere.” While not obvious at first, the letter reveals a problem of morale and culture at PayPal. As an executive, you certainly want your employees to use and promote your products. However, when faced with a situation where staff isn't embracing what they make, you need to investigate the root of the problem -- not threaten. When faced with internal problems, good executives start by asking “why”. They reach out to their executive team first and then to the entire staff to find the root of a problem and how to fix it. Sending out a one-sided note about the problem is not leading, it's retreating. Leadership starts by listening. Good executives need to get out among the staff and ask questions and listen without judgment or reaction. The fact that company employees are not embracing and using its products is a failure of leadership that Marcus needs to address by self-reflection. At the end of the day, if his employees have to be forced to use the app, how can he expect consumers to want to willingly pay to use it? Marcus should have focused on three questions: • Why are you not using the app? • What is it that we can do to ensure you use our app? • What do you need from me?1. A CEO only needs to be passionate and enthusiastic. (1) 2. It is not professional that PayPal CEO blames his employees for not using PayPal or forgetting PayPal passwords. (2) 3. “A one-sided note” refers to the root of PayPal's problem. (3) 4. When faced with internal problems, good executives find the root of a problem in their executive team first. (4) 5. Good executives need to give feedback immediately when they are listening to the staff. (5)
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认为政策执行研究分为自上而下与自下而上两种途径的是学者(  )
练习1(多选):政策方案规划的过程中的基本要素是( )
练习1(单选):( )可以视为处于特定公共政策系统边界之外,能够对该系统的存在、运行与发展产生直接或间接影响的系统外部各种因素的总和。
直接或间接地参与公共政策过程的各个环节,对公共政策制定、执行、评估和监控等活动有影响或试图施加影响的个人、团体或组织是指(   )
练习1(单选):( )是贯彻执行国家法律和政策,管理国家内政外交等行政事务的机关。
公共政策的核心要素是(    )
政策的调控功能常常表现出特有的(    ),即鲜明地强调政府工作的侧重点。
“政策科学”的概念是由美国政治学家(   )最早提出的。
公共政策的主要功能包括导向功能、调控功能与分配功能。(   )
公共选择是指非市场的集体选择,实际上就是政府选择。(    )
政府预算具有( )的特征。
全国人民代表大会审查、批准中央预算草案及中央和地方预算执行情况的报告。( )
税收管辖权也称课税权,是国际税收领域中的一个核心概念,是( )在税收领域中的体现。
下列属于国际税收协定基本内容的是( )。
货币政策工具是一国货币当局执行货币政策时所采取的措施和手段,按其性质可分为( )。

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