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2023-05-23 18:00:39
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科目:管理英语4
学科:未分类
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Organizational Culture and Its Functions Just as individuals have personalities, so, too, do organizations. Individuals have relatively enduring and stable traits that help us predict their attitudes and behaviors. Organizations, like people, can be characterized as, for example, rigid, friendly, warm, innovative, or conservative. These traits, in turn can be used to predict attitudes and behaviors of the people within these organizations. The culture of any organization, although it may be hard to measure precisely, nevertheless exists and is generally recognized by its employees. Organizations have cultures that govern how members behave. Organizational culture refers to a system of shared meaning held by members that distinguishes the organization from other organizations. It is a set of key characteristics that the organization values. There are seven primary characteristics that capture the essence of an organization's culture. They are: innovation and risk taking, attention to details, outcome orientation people orientation, team orientation, aggressiveness, and stability. Culture performs a number of functions within an organization. First, it creates distinctions between one organization and others. Second, it conveys a sense of identity for organization members. Third, culture facilitates the generation of commitment to something larger than one's individual self-interest. Fourth, it enhances the stability of the social system. Finally, culture serves as a sensemaking and control mechanism that guides and shapes the attitudes and behaviors of employees.   The role of culture in influencing employee behaviors appears to be increasingly important in today's workplace. Who receives a job offer to join the organization, who is appraised as a high performer, and who gets a promotion are strongly influenced by the individual-organization “fit”.1. How many characteristics does an organization's culture primarily contain? (1) A. 3.B. 5.C. 7.2. How many functions does the culture perform within an organization? (2) A. 7. B. 6. C. 5.3. What does the word “fit” in the last paragraph mean? (3) A. Match.B. Healthy.C. Illness.4. What is the first function of organizational culture? (4) A. To become the basis for shared understanding.B. To distinguish one organization from another.C. To capture the essence of an organization.5. What is the third function of organizational culture? (5) A. To help make employees more creative in their work.B. To help make employees more obedient in their behaviors.C. To help make employees more committed to the organization.
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A team of about 35 employees had come together for a team-building event. They were a young, bright and enthusiastic team. However, one of their chief problems was the fact that they wouldn't share information or solutions with each other, and the team leader thought they were too focused on themselves and not on the team. As a result, she brought them all into the cafeteria. All of the tables and chairs had been stored away, and fun decorations and hundreds of different colored balloons had been placed around the room. In the center of the room was a big box of balloons that hadn't been blown up yet. The team leader instructed everybody to pick a balloon, blow it up, and write their name on it, but they had to be careful not to burst the balloon. Although they were given a second chance if their first balloon popped, they were out of the game the second time round. In the end, about 30 team members wrote their names without their balloons popping. They were then asked to leave the room and, after five minutes, the team leader brought them back in and asked them to find the balloon with their name on it amongst the hundreds of other balloons in the room. After 15 minutes of searching, no one had found their balloon, and the team were told that they were then going to move on to the third round of the activity. In this round, each team member was instructed to find any balloon with a name on it and then give that balloon to the person whose name was on it. Within two minutes, everybody had their own balloon. The team leader summarized the activity thus: “We are much more efficient when we are willing to share with each other and much better at problem solving when we are working together, not individually”. Sometimes, members of teams create obstacles by focusing solely on their own pursuits and goals. Every member of the team should ask themselves on a regular basis what they are doing and what they can do for the team.1. What was the purpose of holding this team-building event? (1) A. Helping the employees become more concentrated on their work.B. Making the team members know how to cooperate with each other.C. Building up team morale.2. Where was the event held? (2) A. In a restaurant. B. In a coffee shop. C. In a classroom.3. About how many team members were out of the second round of the activity? (3) A. 30.B. 35.C. 5.4. Which statement below is correct about the event? (4) A. In the second round, every one of the team had found their balloons after 15 minutes.B. In the third round, the team members were asked to find the balloon with their name on it.C. In the third round, everybody had their own balloon within 2 minutes.5. What was the event going to teach these employees? (5) A. Cooperating with other members is more efficient when they are working together.B. Focusing on one's own pursuits is not allowed in the workplace.C. Failure of teamwork is caused by individuals.
The meaning of “communication” goes a lot _____ than people often think.